British Africa


Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
During the Anglo-Egyptian condominium there was no flag for Sudan, but the two flags (Union Jack and Egyptian) were used at all places. The Egyptian flag changed three times: until 1914 it was red with a crescent and star (as for the Ottoman); during 1914-1923 it was red with three crescents and three stars; and during 1923-1954 it was green with one crescent and three stars. I believe that the condominium finished in 1956 but the blue-yellow-green flag of Sudan was hoisted in 1954. W. Smith's 1975 book has a photo of the two flags with the following text: 'Therefore the flags of these two countries were flown jointly, with the Union Jack always taking precedence - except in the city of Suakin, where [the] Egyptian flag flew alone' Željko Heimer
British Central Africa Protectorate
The British Central Africa Protectorate (BCA) existed in the area of present-day Malawi between 1891 and 1907.

British East Africa (Kenya)
Witu Protectorate
Witu was a protectorate established c.1890 on the coast of East Africa. It was part of the mainland territories of the Sultan of Zanzibar that came under British control as a result of the Anglo-German Heligoland Treaty. It was probably the territory that became known as the Protectorate of Kenya when the East Africa Protectorate became Kenya Colony in 1920. The flag may not have come into use until c.1905. A letter of that year reported that the Consul General at Zanzibar had adopted a red Arab flag with a small Union Jack in the centre for the Protectorate of Witu. As drawn, the flag was 37:57 with a central Union Jack of 15:27. David Prothero
Imperial British East Africa Company
The Imperial British East Africa Company (IBEAC) was the administrator of British East Africa, which was the forerunner of the East Africa Protectorate, later Kenya. The IBEAC was a commercial association founded to develop African trade in the areas controlled by the British colonial power. Created after the Berlin Treaty of 1885, it was led by William Mackinnon and built upon his company's trading activities in the region, with the encouragement of the British government. Mombasa and its harbour were central to its operations, with an administrative office about 80km south in Shimoni. The company was incorporated in London on 18 April 1888, and granted a royal charter by Queen Victoria on 6 September 1888.
Martin Grieve
The British flag books published in 1882 and 1902 shows British East Africa Union Flag with 16 rays (8 longer 8 shorter) and the crown in white disc and Blue and red Ensign with 24 rays (8 longer 16 shorter) and the crown without white disc.
Nozomi Kariyasu
British East Africa (Kenya)
 The flag US President Obama's father grew up honouring on display in my classroom. My flag has the rope attachment toggle and is in excellent condition with only a few dark stains on the 'blue' with 'Kenya' stamped on the flagpole side. 4 feet by 8 feet 6 inches.  
 
A smaller version- 6 feet by 3 feet
The sequence of badges/flags seems to have been:-

* 1890-1895. "Crown/sun badge" on white disc surrounded by garland on Union Jack. Variation of badge on Red Ensign and Blue Ensign direct.
* 1895-1921. "Red lion badge" on white disc on Blue Ensign.
* 1921-1963. Ditto on Blue Ensign direct.
* 1895-1963. Ditto on white disc surrounded by garland on the Union Jack


The flag in this photograph on the left of the Starehe Boys Centre, Nairobi, Kenya is either the Blue or Red Ensign, the colonial flag that flew over Kenya until independence in 1963. That on the right shows the Kenyan Olympic team October 31, 1956, as they embark for India.
From the Bruce Berry collection; without the white disc 


Measures 57" x 113", rope is 79" from brass ring to brass clasp.  Stamped on the flag:  Flag, National, Kenya  Cotton Bunting  P.Q.M.C. Mfg. Div.  5' x 10'

Merchant Ensign
The legality of its use as an ensign would have depended upon the circumstances. It would not have been a legal ensign for a registered ship, and its use in international waters would have been open to question, as it was not an internationally recognized maritime flag. But there was no reason why small dhows, trading along the East African coast, and generally remaining within the territorial waters of the British Empire, should not use it as an ensign, if they so wished. It may locally have been thought that it was the correct ensign, since British Somaliland to the north, and Tanganyika to the south, each had its own warranted Red Ensign.

They were a protectorate and a mandated territory respectively, whose inhabitants were not British subjects, and were therefore not entitled to use a plain Red Ensign. It might be argued that Kenya also should have had a distinctive Red Ensign. Although the interior of the country was a colony after 1920, the coastal strip, formerly known as Witu, remained a protectorate. This caused a problem in 1956 when the Board of Trade Registrar in Plymouth refused to register a ship belonging to Southern Lines Ltd of Kenya, on the grounds that the company's head office was in Mombasa, which was in the protectorate and not the colony. The ship could not sail under the Kenyan Ensign, since such an ensign had not been warranted, and it could not sail under the plain Red Ensign as the ship was owned by a company that was not "established under and subject to the laws of some part of HM dominions." The company was advised to either transfer ownership of the vessel to another company, or register it in the name of a British subject, or move its head quarters to Nairobi, which was within the colony.
Governor's flag (1895-1963)
The flag of British East Africa is the national banner of the Empire, bearing upon the intersection of the crosses a red lion, rampant, or aggressively walking forward on his hind legs...encircled by a wreath. No explanation why British East Africa doesn't follow the badge-ensign model. Josh Fruhlinger
British Somaliland
1903 - 1950 The badge of Somaliland Protectorate bears the head and shoulders of a kudu, one of the antelopes of the region. The flag on the right "is illustrated in Flaggenbuch (1992) and is of course the Merchant Ensign." Martin Grieve
Governor's Flag

1950-1960
In 1950 The Protectorate of British Somaliland's badge changed and thus all flags which bore it. The Kudu's head and shoulders were retained and formed the most dominant feature on the device, although the Antelope's face was now looking straight out at the observer. Between it's horns, A Royal crown was inserted - this being what appears to be one of many Tudor-style variants, and reminiscent of that which is/was depicted on the Northern Ireland's "red hand of Ulster" flag to name but one. On the lower right panel, a dhow appears on blue and white wavy lines to represent the sea - similar to the badge of Aden Protectorate which lies across the
Arabian Sea from present-day Somalia. Below this is a gold anchor (possibly an Admiralty anchor?)     Martin Grieve

David Prothero and myself had an off-list correspondence about the existence of a defaced red Ensign for this Nation. David has a question mark next to this entry on his Colonial Flag list, and I asked him why this was. His response was to the effect that although he had never seen any warrant granting it's [sic] approval, that did not mean to say that one did not exist. Given the fact that from 1903-1950, British Somaliland Protectorate most certainly did have a Red Ensign, I believe it is more than likely that from 1950-1960 this would also have been the case. Martin Grieve
British West Africa
One of the more attractive flag badges which was emblazoned in the fly of the British Blue Ensign and centrally positioned within the laurel garland upon the Union Flag would surely be that of the various former British Colonies situated along the coast of West Africa. I refer here to The Gambia, Gold Coast, Lagos, Sierra Leone and of course, The West Africa Settlements. All these badges have/had one thing in common: they depict an Elephant (proper) standing before a Palm tree with natural vegetation and a sunrise/sunset in the background. as well as two pieces of vegetation upon sand in the foreground. It may perhaps be easier to distinguish each one of them by the initial(s) of the colonies inserted immediately below this scene which they bore and flew so gracefully above. These are:
G. The Gambia
G.C. The Gold Coast
L. Lagos Colony
S.L. Sierra Leone
The exception to the rule is The West Africa Settlements, which spell the entire name below the "Elephant and Palm" picture.

In the British publications, the Elephant is shown in a brown shading with some natural shadowing effect in order that the animal is three-dimensionally depicted. "De Grossen Flaggenbuch" which is a re-print of the original 1939 edition, shows this Elephant with two distinct differences:
i The Elephant is grey in colour as opposed to brown
ii The trunk of the Elephant is more "sineous" or "twisted" as opposed to a rather slenderly-curved form which appear in the various British publications from and before this time.
The basic elements which constitute the "template badge" are of course what matters the most here, and given the fact that it is probable that more than one person painted this emblem on to the flags, we could expect to see many "variations on the same theme".

I have used a "hybrid" or "compromise" version in drawing these images - the Elephant from Flaggenbuch, but the shading in brown (confused yet?):-)  Martin Grieve
West African Settlements Governor's flag

The Gambia
 Rare Gambian ensign measuring 70" by 30"
The ground of the Gambia badge is yellow, and shows a brown elephant standing in front of a palm-tree between green mountains. In base is the initial letter "G" in red. When this badge appears on the Union Flag it is surrounded by the garland, while on the Blue Ensign it has no garland. Before the Gold Coast became the self-governing dominion of Ghana on March 6th, 1957, its badge was similar to that of Gambia but bore the initials "G.C." It was displayed on the Union Flag and the Blue Ensign in like manner. Jarig Bakker

The only image of an actual flag I could find.

The Gold Coast (British Ghana) 1877-1957
     Blue Ensign with the badge of the Gold Coast. The ensign is made of wool bunting with a linen hoist and is machine sewn with a rope halyard attached. The ends are sewn and the sides are the selvedges of the fabric. The field is blue with a Union Flag in the canton. It has a printed circular badge depicting a brown elephant under a palm tree with the letters 'G.C' below. The ensign is inscribed 'MP' on the hoist. The design was used 1877-1957 when the Gold Coast was under British rule. It was granted self government as Ghana on 6 March 1957.
According to Carr, this flag "shows a brown elephant standing in front of a palm-tree between green mountains...When this badge appears on the Union Flag it is surrounded by the garland, while on the Blue Ensign it has no garland. Before the Gold Coast became the self-governing dominion of Ghana on March 6th, 1957, its badge … bore the initials 'G.C.' It was displayed on the Union Flag and the Blue Ensign in like manner."Jarig Bakker
The none-too imaginative British had the same badge for all their minor West African possessions: Identical flags were granted to Gambia and Sierra Leone, differing only by having the initials "G." and "S.L.", instead of "G.C." Josh Fruhlinger

Civil Ensign
Personal Collection
Fanti Asafo Flags
Flag of the Fanti (or Fante) in the coastal areas of Ghana of the type used to identify their military companies, called Asafo, which serve as political, cultural, and military advisers. The appliquéd symbols on the flags may identify a company by name, number, and geographic location, using imagery illustrating the power and glory of the unit. This example is found in an exhibit catalog of African textiles, Daiei Hakubutsukan shozohin ni yoru Afurika no senshoku. (The National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto, 1991)
http://www.adire.clara.net/asafogallery.htm

Lagos

Lagos 1886-1906

Apart from Gambia, Gold Coast and Sierra Leone, this badge was also used with L in red for Lagos from 1886 to 1906. David Prothero  


Governor's flagNigeria



     Ensign of the Director of the Nigeria Marine. The bunting is wool and synthetic fibre blend and the ensign has a cotton hoist containing a rope for hoisting, a wooden batten and a brass eyelet. The ensign is machine sewn with a printed badge. It has a blue field with a Union Flag in the canton and a red disc in the hoist, on which is a six-pointed green star with a gold crown in the centre and 'NIGERIA' in white letters. Stencilled on the hoist is the maker's name and '4 x 2 195...' The flag was worn on Captain F. W. J. Skutil's last official tour of Nigeria Marine stations and flown on the headquarters flagstaff on the last day before independence. The green star badge was based on the design on a brass jug acquired by British troops after the defeat of the Emir of Kontagora in January 1901. Frederick John Dealtry Lugard (1858-1945) suggested it as a badge for Northern Nigeria and it was adopted for the country as a whole when Northern and Southern Nigeria were amalgamated in 1914.

The badge of this protectorate has a red field, upon which are imposed two interlocked triangles in the form of a six-pointed star. In the centre is the crown of the British Empire.
The union jack is the national flag of the colonies as well as of the mother countries and, although it is a rule observed more in the breach than in its observance, no other flag is to be displayed ashore. According to British flag law, the union jack, in its plain condition and without emblazonment or badge, is the only flag an individual or corporation in British realms may properly fly. However, since the shipping of the principal colonies is accustomed to fly the red ensign with the badge of the colony represented in the fly, this flag is frequently, if not indeed usually, displayed by the people of the several colonies as their particular flag. Vessels bearing colonial governors or other administrative officials of badge-possessing rank fly the union jack with a badge of the colony placed within a wreath at the intersection of the crosses. Vessels of the colonial public service display the blue ensign with the badge of the colony from which it hails in the fly. Josh Fruhlinger
Arrival of Sir Frederick Lugard (formerly Governor of Hong Kong from 1907 to 1912 and chiefly responsible for the creation of the University of Hong Kong in 1911) at Calabar, December 1912, looking down on the scene at the Calabar landing stage on his tour of the Central and Eastern Provinces of Nigeria of December 2-15. In the foreground a guard of honour stands at attention, with a group of civil and military officials gathered beside the landing stage watching Lugard's departure in the motor car which can be seen rounding the corner in the background.

Red Ensign
image by Clay Moss
British Nigeria Union Flag


Royal Niger Company

The Royal Niger Company was a mercantile company chartered by the British government in the nineteenth century. It formed a basis of the modern state of Nigeria.
Badge: A black Y with the words 'ARS', 'JUS', and 'PAX' written on the arms, surrounded by a red ring. Each angle between the arms of the Y is 120 degrees. The ends of the arms are square and do not touch the ring. The letters are yellow non-serif.
Meaning: The arms of the Y represent: the Quorra from the NW, the Benue from the NE, and the union of them both from Lokoja to the sea. The badge which the Foreign Office considered unsuitable was proposed by G.D. Goldie-Taubman, Vice-Chairman of Company who wrote that the meaning of the colours was self-evident.
Use: The Admiralty approved the badge for use on the fly of the St George's cross White Ensign on the presumption that its use would be confined to inland waterways. The company actually used it on a plain White Ensign, flown at sea as well as on inland waters. When this was discovered the Admiralty withdrew the warrant and issued a new warrant authorizing use of the badge on the Blue Ensign.
Dates: White Ensign was approved 2 June 1887 and authorization withdrawn 1 Feb 1888. It probably continued to be used without authorization until June 1888 while Company argued with the Admiralty. The defaced Blue Ensign was authorized 1 Feb 1888. It was presumably used until 1899 when the Royal Niger Company charter was surrendered. 18 June 1888 The Company was told to fly plain Red Ensign on merchant ships.
In the book The Colours of the Fleet- British & British Derived Ensigns (The most comprehensive worldwide list of all flags and ensigns, past and present, which bear the Union flag in the canton) created and compiled by Malcolm Farrow OBE FCMI, President of the Flag Institute:
The Royal Niger Company's defaced White Ensign, although listed later on as obsolete, is believed to have been revived ~ to fly at a memorial to the company outside an hotel in Nigeria. If a travelling reader comes across it the author will be glad to hear from them.

Sierra Leone
1889-1914

The none-too imaginative British had the same badge for all their minor West African possessions. This one is for Sierra Leone. The Gambia differs only by having the initial "G." instead of "S.L.", and the Gold Coast (now Ghana) had "G.C." Josh Fruhlinger

1916-1961
The badge is described in my copy of Carr's Flags of the World 1956 page 84 as follows, "In the top part of the shield is the Union Flag as it was prior to 1801 - with only the Crosses of St George and St Andrew. The lower part of the shield is divided into halves by a vertical line. On the one side is a liberated slave seated on the seashore with a ship in the offing; on the other on a golden ground, is a green palm-tree. Underneath is the motto: "Auspice Britannia Liber" (Free under Britain's protection)."
The National Geographic of Sept. 1934 has the palm tree on a dark brown background, and the badge generally looks darker than, e.g., in Kannik.
Red Ensign
Governor's Flag

British Cameroon

Tanganyika 1919-1961 
From British Pathe film about Tanganyika made in 1961
After the defeat of Germany in 1918 in World War I, under the Treaty of Versailles German East Africa was divided among the victorious powers, with the largest segment being transferred to British control (except Rwanda and Burundi which went to Belgium, and the small Kionga Triangle which went to Portuguese Mozambique). A new name was needed, and Tanganyika was adopted by the British for all of its part of the territory of German East Africa.
Red Ensign - white disc with Giraffe's neck and head. The white disk's diameter = 4/9 of flag height. Badge from Flaggenbuch (1939) by Ottfried Nubecker.

Blue Ensign
Authentic flag marked "Flag National Tanganyika". Cotton bunting; P.Q.M.C. Mfg. Div. 5' x 10'. The design is on both sides.
From Clay Moss's collection:
Photographs from the December 1962 visit of Sir Richard Turnbull, the last British colonial Governor of Tanganyika. On the left , soldiers of the Tanganyika Rifles present their colours whilst the right shows his farewell to them as his flag flies above him.


Governor's flag
image by Martin Grieve
 
Sultanate of M'Simbati
M'Simbati is an island or peninsula in southeastern Tanzania. In 1959 Mr. Latham Leslie-Moore, a retired civil servant, declared the secession of the "Sultanate of M'Simbati" from the then colony of Tanganyika. He designed a flag for this "Sultanate", which was flying over his house, until the "secession" was suppressed in 1962 by Tanzanian government troops.

There is a black and white photograph of the flag on p. 80 of the article "The White Sultan" by Charles Miller which appeared in the Saturday Evening Post on 20 April 1963. See also an article in The Flag Bulletin, No. 204 (2002) by Dr. Whitney Smith.

Uganda
The Ugandan Olympic team, watching the raising of their flag November 5, 1956.

Uganda Governor's flag (1914-1962)
"A bird, the African Balearic Crane, shown in its full natural colouring, is symbolic of Uganda. The Union Flag shows it surrounded by the garland, the Blue Ensign has it without the latter." (Source : Carr's Flags of the World, 1961 (p. 98)
Flaggenbuch shows the same image with some variations in the colours, the two bushes being "plain" green. However, due to the "artistic" design of the badges of this period, I doubt there was really an "official" version (except maybe the original model designed by a painter?) I also wonder how such designs could have been accurately reproduced on flags. Ivan Sache

Royal East Africa Navy


     Jack of the Royal East Africa Navy, worn by HMEAS 'Mvita' 1956. The flag is made of wool and synthetic fibre bunting with a cotton hoist, machine sewn and with the design of the badge printed. It has a blue field with a Union Flag in the canton as well as a circular badge surrounded by a cable knotted at the bottom and surmounted by a crown. In the four quarters of the badge are a red rampant lion representing Kenya, a crane for Uganda, a giraffe's head for Tanganyika and a dhow and crown for Zanzibar. Stencilled on the hoist are '1958 4 x 2' and the maker's name. A rope and two Inglefield clips are attached. The design was in use between 1957 and 1962 when the Royal East African Navy was disbanded. Colonial naval reserves in East Africa were amalgamated into a single organisation during the Second World War known as the East African Naval Force. The name was changed in 1952 at the same time as the design was submitted. It was finally approved in 1957.

East African Railways and Harbours
The East African Railways and Harbours Corporation evolved from the Uganda Railway in Kenya and Uganda and the railways of Tanganyika (later Tanzania) between World War I and 1977 when the East African Community dissolved. These national successor railways followed:

* Uganda Railways Corporation
* Kenya Railways Corporation
* Tanzania Railways Corporation

British Resident of Zanzibar (1890 - 1963)

From "The Book of Flags" by Campbell and Evans 1965:
"British Resident placed inside a garland at the centre of the Union Flag a picture of a dhow, a native boat with a triangular sail and flying a red flag, on a green sea against a blue sky. Above was the Royal Crown in red and gold".

Basutoland
  1951-1966
The flag of the British Resident Commissioner in Basutoland was the Union Flag with the shield of the arms granted to the Colony by Royal Warrant on 20 March 1951, namely: "Vert, a crocodile proper and in chief a fleece between two garbs Or" within a garland. This flag became obsolete in 1966 when the territory became the Kingdom of Lesotho (within the Commonwealth). The flag measures approximately 6' x 3' (1.8 x 0.9 m). This replica was made ca. 1995.Bill Garrison, 18 June 2002

Natal Colony


1870 - 1910 Government Ensign

From the Bruce Berry collection

Natal did use the seal on their ensigns but the complicated design of the Seal did not lend itself to successful application on flags. To make the legends readable from both sides, manufacturers were obliged to sew two devices back to back. So subsequently a simplified version of the badge was used as the device on the fly of the Blue Ensign as shown below.
Red Ensign
 
36" x 18" (85cm x  40cm)
 0.84 X 1.8M
Some notes on the Natal Red Ensign:
My business partner local artist Ted Brandon and I, were responsible for researching and reviving the Natal Red Ensign in the mid-1980s. Natal had always had a strong British connection and was considered a renegade Province by the rest of the country at that time. Ted designed the famous bumper sticker which had the fly half of the Union Jack on the right and the 1875 Captain Hine version of the Natal Arms on the left. The Sticker was red with the legend "Natal - the last outpost."
The design was derived from the Natal Red Ensign which from our research, seems to have been in use fairly extensively. The evidence is as follows.
1. The Killie Campbell Red Ensign whilst itself obviously being a home made job, is indicative of its existence elsewhere.
2. The Natal Technical College in Pietermaritzburg had a Natal Red Ensign which was flown each year on graduation day and possibly on other special occasions. This was properly manufactured and proportioned and had the Captain Hine Coat of Arms but with a much simplified colour scheme i.e. black on khaki. The Principal of the College claimed that the flag was an original relic from pre-Union days. Two other examples existed-one was displayed in the entrance hall of the old Natal Assembly Building and one was displayed in the Durban History Museum. The latter was a reproduction produced by another Durban Manufacturer. It is possible that the Tech example was also a reproduction, but even if it was, it again begs the question - reproduced from what example?
3.The Harbour master or Port Captain flew a Natal ensign pre-Union, which considering its Maritime/Civilian locality, was almost certainly a Red Ensign.
4.Several monochrome photos exist of the ensign pre-Union. One particular photograph taken on the Durban beachfront circa 1905 shows a display of two governors flags and two Ensigns. Whilst obviously one can not be certain whether the Ensigns are red or blue ,they appear lighter than the Union Jack blue in the rest of the flag and on a balance of probabilities, are thus likely to be Red Ensigns.
When one considers that there are no relic Natal Blue Ensigns (apart from, as far as I am aware, the Royal Natal Yacht Club Ensign) all the evidence points to a Natal Red Ensign ' a la Canada'. Also Captain Hines Wildebeest were in retreat. This was corrected by the York Heralds in 1904/5. The modern Natal Arms had them in full charge towards the enemy!
Supposed "vintage" flag produced by 'Sporti'- 880mm wide x 1.7 metres long

Governor of Natal Province


Note there is a black circle around the badge in the centre on this occasion. Otherwise the Governor of Natal's flag followed the usual pattern used in the British Colonies, and placed the badge within laurel Garland on the Union Flag.  Martin Grieve
Union flag with complex Victorian badge: 'Within a Chippendale-type frame, on a plain, two Wildebeest (gnus) in full course at random with the words COLONY OF NATAL beneath the frame. The frame itself is ensigned with the Royal Arms, and around the circumference appears the legend VICTORIA DEI GRATIA BRITANNIA REG. F.D.' Flag measures approx. 6' x 3' (1.8 m x 0.9m). This replica was made ca. 1995.  Bill Garrison

Transvaal 1877-1881, 1902-1910

I can confirm that Fred Brownell asserts the existence of the Transvaal Blue Ensign. He does not mention a royal warrant, but he makes this comment:
"Despite the fact that the Colony certainly had no shipping of its own, by 1905 its colonial flag device was even to be found included in the Imperial German Navy's Flag Book. For years after Union, the Transvaal Colony's Red Ensign was also still to be found depicted in flag books."
It is most unlikely that the State Herald (as Brownell was in 1993) would knowingly publish information on a non-existent flag. The badge, he states, came from the colonial seal. Both seal and badge are illustrated on my page ­ these illustrations being scanned from National and Provincial Symbols.
Incidentally, whether or not the Blue Ensign was used much in the Transvaal, there would almost certainly have been a Union Jack defaced with the badge, since the Governor, Lord Milner, lived in Johannesburg during most of the period from the annexation of the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek until his resignation. Milner (Sir Alfred when he was first made Governor of the Orange River Colony) resigned as Governor of the Cape so that he could take personal charge of arrangements in the former Boer republics, although he retained his position as High Commissioner. When he was made Governor of both the Orange River Colony and the Transvaal, he appointed Administrators for the two colonies. The Administrators lived respectively in Bloemfontein and Pretoria, and reported to him on their activities. Although Pretoria remained the seat of administration for the Transvaal, Milner preferred to remain in Johannesburg. Mike Oettle
Governor's Flag

Cape of Good Hope

A flag of the Governor of the Cape of Good Hope was taken into use on 12 May 1875, on the occasion of the laying of a foundation stone of the House of Parliament in Cape Town. The Governor's flag followed the traditional pattern of having the colonial arms in the centre of a Union Jack surrounded by a green laurel garland. However, official authorisation by Royal Warrant for the arms of the colony was only granted nearly a year later on 29 May 1876 and a Blue Ensign bearing these arms on a white roundel was introduced soon thereafter. There does not seem to have been a Red Ensign version.
The Cape Colonial Blue Ensign was used until the Union of South Africa came into being on 31 May 1910 when the Cape Colony became the Cape Province. No provincial flag was used by the Cape Province, or any of the other four provinces in the period 31 May 1910 to 26 April 1994. The Cape Province was divided into the Western Cape, Eastern Cape and Northern Cape provinces on 27 April 1994. Bruce Berry
Red Ensign
It has been stated that there was no Red Ensign for the Cape Colony. I have no way of checking this, but it’s quite possible that there was no authorised Cape Colony Red Ensign. On the other hand, one certainly did exist, and was known as the Railway Ensign because it was to be seen chiefly at stations of the Cape Government Railways (CGR). The roundel in the fly contained (as in the colony’s Blue Ensign) the full heraldic achievement of the Cape Colony, but in addition (if I recall correctly – it’s been some years since I saw an example of it) it contained further scroll work. It was quite an elaborate badge.
This flag was then used as an example for a version of the South African Red Ensign that also seems to have had a railway provenance. I believe the CGR element that was taken up into the South African Railways and Harbours (SAR&H) organisation in 1913 must have continued ordering flags exactly like the “Railway Ensign”, but now with the South African arms – and again using the full achievement, instead of the shield only, as authorised by Royal Warrant.
The SAR&H was formed out of the CGR, the Natal Government Railways, the Cape Town Harbour Board, the Port Elizabeth Harbour Board, the East London Harbour Board and the Central South African Railways. (I’m not certain off-hand whether there was a Durban Harbour Board; if there was, it also would have been incorporated.) The Central South African Railways was a British civilian administration that took over from the Imperial Military Railways, set up following the invasion of the Boer republics to run the republican railway systems.
The South African “Railway Ensign” seems to have died a natural death when the Union Flag was taken into use in 1928. Mike Oettle



28 inches (700mm) by 14 inches (360mm)
     Merchant ensign of Cape Colony in the 1876-1910 pattern. The flag is made from wool bunting with a cotton hoist, machine sewn at the ends with selvedge edges. The design is entirely printed onto the fabric. A cord is attached for hoisting, with 'M.P.' written in ink and 'CAPE' stencilled on it. The design is a red ensign with the arms of the Cape of Good Hope in the fly on a white disc. A wildebeest and springbok suppost a crest depicting hope (a female figure with an anchor), gules, a lion rampant, three annulets and in chief argent with three hurts azure, charged with three fleur de lis. The crest bears the motto 'SPES BONA'. The design went out of use after the Union of South Africa came into being in 1910.
The flag is fully printed on what I would describe as a very high grade broad cloth. It's actually a cross between broad cloth and canvas, and quite a sturdy flag for being roughly 100 years old.

You'll notice that the Union Jack isn't proportionally correct. The entire ensign was dye printed with the disk, and though the Union Jack is incorrect, the overall quality of the print is very good. The badge was printed or perhaps painted on later with paint that is considerably stiffer than the supple ensign.

I didn't know it, but I acquired a Manitoba red ensign (bison shield on disk) sometime back that was apparently made by the same company. When I compared the two ensigns, they were virtually identical, including a duplicate 1/4 inch wide blue smudge that appears in the upper hoist white part of the Scottish saltier. Since getting both ensigns, I have seen other pictures of red ensigns for auction on e-Bay that look like they too came from the same stock. I would have bought all of them, but the bids got out of my league. Those pictured on e-Bay were all southern African including, a South African ensign with South Africa's full colonial coat of arms, (like the "Railways Ensign" mentioned above) Sierra Leone, and Natal with the simplified shield. If all of the afore mentioned ensigns are from the same manufacturer, Manitoba is the only non-African sample I have seen.

If anyone can elaborate on who may have made these ensigns up, I would love to know. Neither of mine have labels on them but it does prove that a Cape Colonial Red Ensign was made/used - even if unofficially! Clay Moss
Governor of Cape Colony

Flags, Arms, & Emblems cigarette cards from John Player & Sons cigarette cards


Colours of the Taranaki Rifle VolunteersThe Taranaki Militia and Rifle Volunteers' efforts in 1860 were rewarded by the presentation of an impressive flag in 1861, designed and sewn by the women of the area. Note that the banner with the words "South Africa" in the top right-hand of the flag was added to the corps' colours following their participation in the South African War. http://www.austenfamily.org/free_main.html

Orange River Colony
1902 - 1910
Following in the British colonial pattern, a flag for the Orange River Colony was approved following the Grant of Arms to the Colony on 10 December 1904. These were blazoned in the Royal Warrant as:
"Argent on a Mound a Springbuck and on a Chief Azure the Imperial Crown all proper".
Accordingly a colonial ensign bearing the principal charge from the Arms was approved for the Orange River Colony. This flag was used until the Colony was incorporated into the Union of South Africa on 31 May 1910 and became the Province of the Orange Free State. Brownell (1994) indicates that there does not seem to have been a red ensign version as the colony had neither a coastline nor shipping. Bruce Berry
Governor's Flag

image by Clay Moss


British South African Company (BSAC) 1890-1923
 
Astonishing part of the Bruce Berry collection
The UK Branch of the BSAP Regimental Association held their 58th Annual Regimental Dinner at the Victory Services Club in central London on Friday 30th September 2005, at which the Guest of Honour was General Sir Michael Walker GCB, CMG, CBE, ADC Gen., the Chief of the Defence Staff. In the background appears to be the Rhodesian Governor General's flag.
http://www.netcomuk.co.uk/~springbk/rhod.html
UPDATE: I received an email from Mr. Alan Harvey, organiser/secretary of the Springbok Club/Empire Loyalist Club who wrote the following:
(T)he two most important mistakes which you've made which I can confirm for certain are: 1) that the flag in the background of the BSAP Reg.Association dinner which you show is actually the company flag of the British South African Company (BSAC) - that which was used by Cecil Rhodes's Pioneer Column which rode into what became Southern Rhodesia in 1890, and 2) the rugby jersey which you showed was not that of Nyasaland, but rather that of Northern Rhodesia.

 
 BSAC flags showing the two variants - with the red ring and without. No definite answer as to which was "official" as the description merely said the badge is to be placed in the centre of the Union Jack, but both versions were used.  Bruce Berry

In Andre Burgers' "Sovereign Flags of Southern Africa" (1997) shows two images and the following text:"After an Ndebele uprising in 1893, the Company annexed Matabeleland and hoisted the Company flag over Bulawayo. This flag was a Union Jack with in the centre on a white roundel, the crest from the Company coat of arms. This was a lion passant gardant Or holding upright in his dexter fore-paw, an ivory tusk and there beneath the letters B. S. A. C. Later a red circle was added around a white disc."

BSAC Blue ensign


According to a letter of 11 November 1902 the defaced ensigns were authorised for boats and vessels that the company operated on the lakes and waterways of North Eastern Rhodesia; the Blue Ensign for company vessels not being trading vessels, and the Red Ensign for trading vessels. The defaced Union Jack was for the Administrator when embarked in vessels belonging to the company.   David Prothero

South Africa

A vintage South Africa flag, 36 inches by 17 inches, three stitched panels, Union Jack in corner printed, South Africa crest printed, lots of holes, large one top right, ripped on edge top right.

Remarkable example from the Bruce Berry collection 

Two more examples
The Red Ensign was, at times, also used as the national flag ashore, although it was the Union Jack that officially enjoyed this status....
The Red Ensign's most prominent moment was probably when General Louis Botha, former Commandant-General of the Zuid-Afrikaanse Republiek forces, later Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa and Commander-in-Chief of the Union forces, hoisted it over Windhoek (in the then German South West Africa), after capturing that town from the Germans in 1915.
"Sovereign flags of Southern Africa", A. P. Burgers, 1997


5 feet by 3 feet
In 2007 I cycled through the Ypres Salient and Somme battlefields and came across this red ensign made by a Mr. Byrne for the South African Museum at Delville.

Blue Ensign

The governing authority in the British Empire for flags flown at sea was the British Admiralty. On 28 December 1910, Admiralty warrants were issued for two South African ensigns, the Blue and the Red. They were both to be charge on the fly with the quartered shield from the Coat of Arms. Initially the shield was NOT placed on a roundel.The Blue Ensign was, in accordance with general British practice, to be flown by Government vessels (not warships of which South Africa had none anyway at the time), and the Red Ensign by South African merchant vessels.The Blue Ensign version was rarely seen in South Africa as South Africa had few such government owned vessels at that time. There is evidence that it was used on occasion on overseas offices of the country until the new South African flag came into use in 1928.As with the red ensign, the blue ensign was changed slightly in 1912, once again by British Admiralty warrant, when the shield of the coat of arms was placed on a white roundel. Source: "Sovereign flags of Southern Africa", A. P. Burgers, 1997 Jarig Bakker
Governor-General of Union of South Africa 1910 - 1931

Cradock Mounted Volunteers (1860-1866)
The standard of the Cradock Mounted Volunteers.
The website has noted the incorrect spelling of three of the Battle Honours as well as the fact that the Drum Major's Mace appears to be upside-down.
Colour of the Kaffrarian Rifles
The first Colour presented in 1910
http://flagsforum.skalman.nu/viewtopic.php?f=3&t=91

British South Africa Police Banner
Photograph of British South Africa Police Banner from the Officers Mess, Morris Depot, Salisbury. Picture by Cliff Rogers.
http://www.bsap.org/Bsaphistory.html



John Vaughan sent me this photo of an interesting flag ... that of the South African Soldiers Association in Australia. This flag is on display near the National Boer War Memorial on ANZAC Parade in Canberra. Bruce Berry
South African Yacht Club Ensigns 
Royal Natal Yacht Club
The Royal Natal Yacht Club had its origins in the Natal Yacht Club which was founded in 1858 and on which the title "Royal" was conferred on 17 February 1891.
An Admiralty Warrant was issued on 15 May 1894 for a distinctive blue ensign, bearing in the fly "The Natal Arms surmounted by a crown" for use by the Royal Natal Yacht Club. The device in the fly is a slightly simplified version of that depicted in the Natal colonial seal, excluding the circumscription. It is mainly gold (yellow), with some white detail in the upper crown and in the oval shield of the Royal Arms, while the cap and jewels of the upper crown are red. The placing of the device directly on the blue field ensured that this Ensign would not be confused with the Natal Blue Ensign, with which it otherwise bears a striking similarity. This privileged ensign has been in use for more than a century and unlike the other South African privileged yacht ensigns of the Royal Cape and Point Yacht Clubs, it was not relinquished after South Africa left the Commonwealth on 31 May 1961. Bruce Berry
Point Yacht Club



Royal Cape Yacht Club

Rhodesia
The Flag of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) changed many times as a result of political changes in the country. Prior to 1953, the then Southern Rhodesia followed British colonial practice, by using a Blue Ensign with the Union Flag in the canton and the shield from the colony's coat of arms in the fly.

In 1953, Southern Rhodesia federated with Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland as the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. The flag of that federation was used until 31 December 1963 when the federation was dissolved. Less than a year after the break-up of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland became independent as Zambia and Malawi. Southern Rhodesia became known simply as Rhodesia. In April 1964 Rhodesia adopted a light air force ensign with the shield from the coat of arms of Rhodesia in the fly. This was the first time the lighter shade of blue ensign was used by a British colony, although Fiji and Tuvalu both adopted the colour after independence.

Following the Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) on November 11, 1965, the flag was retained, but three years later on the anniversary of UDI it was replaced by a green and white flag (similar to that of Nigeria) with the full coat of arms in the centre. On March 2, 1970, the country was declared a republic. Throughout this time, Britain refused to recognise Rhodesia's independence and maintained that the light-blue ensign was the official flag of the country.

In 1979, the country became known as Zimbabwe-Rhodesia and a new flag was adopted on September 2 that year featuring the pan-African colours of red, black, yellow and green, and the Zimbabwe Bird. However, under the terms of the Lancaster House Agreement, the country briefly returned to British rule under the Union Jack from December 12, 1979 although the new flag remained de facto in use. Thus it was the British Union Flag that was lowered during the ceremony on April 18, 1980 marking the country's attainment of independence as the Republic of Zimbabwe.


King's and Regimental Colours of the Northern Rhodesian Regiment http://rhodesia.nl/

Southern Rhodesia 1923 - 1953
http://www.rhodesia.org/gallery/emblems1/images/srflag.jpg

26x54 inches.
There was confusion surrounding the flag of Southern Rhodesia after the adoption of Responsible Government in 1923. When the organiser of the British Empire exhibition wrote to the Rhodesian High Commission in London in May 1925, on the question of the flag for the colony, this caused some consternation. The High Commission did not know what flag to use; on the advice of the Colonial Office, it recommended that the Blue Ensign with arms (or flag badge) in the fly be used, adding that the Governor had indicated that the government had approved the shield only as the flag badge. In March 1928 the Rhodesian High Commission wrote to the Colonial Office in Salisbury asking what the flag of the colony was, adding that they used the "Blue and Red ensigns with the Arms of the Colony in a circle" at the HC in London and at some exhibitions. The reply a month later stated that the Union Jack was the flag of Southern Rhodesia and that the use of the flag badge on the Union Jack or of both the Red and Blue Ensigns "would not be in order for the purpose mentioned in your letter". Between 1933 and 1934 correspondence between London and Salisbury described the colony's flag as being the Union Jack with the colony's badge in the centre of the fly, while another letter noted that no official authority had been given for the use of such a flag, normally reserved for use at sea. In brief, there was no official flag for Southern Rhodesian during this period.

The impending coronation of King George VI in 1937 brought matters to a head as the Rhodesian prime minister wanted a flag to represent the colony at the coronation. Through correspondence with the High Commission and the Dominions Office, it emerged that the most appropriate flag would be a Blue Ensign with the badge of Southern Rhodesia emblazoned in the fly, although the High Commissioner was of the opinion that the Union Jack remained the official flag of the colony and that the new flag had been adopted only for use outside the colony only. Thus the flag for Southern Rhodesia was finally established as being a Blue Ensign with the colonial shield in the fly. The Union Jack nevertheless continued to be flown INSIDE the colony, alongside subsequent Rhodesian flags, until 11 November 1968.

Not only the basic form of the colonial flag, but its exact details were confused in the era of its use. The Admiralty amended the 1915 edition of its Flags of All Nations by issuing, as part of Errata 8, a coloured sheet dated May 1926 which showed the flag badge as having the full achievement of the Southern Rhodesia arms. In April 1927 a correction was made, clearly establishing that the shield only was the appropriate flag badge. In both sheets the text indicated that this emblem appeared on a white disc when on the Union Jack, but WITHOUT a disk on the Blue Ensign. Nevertheless a Rhodesian Government publication illustrated the ensign with a disc behind the shield.

Various sources refer to a Southern Rhodesian Red Ensign bearing the shield (without disc), although Southern Rhodesia's lack of a coastline suggests that such a flag would have been unnecessary even if - as appears not to have been the case - it had official sanction. Red Ensigns were displayed during the 1947 Royal Visit and the local Salisbury newspaper commented, "This is a variety which we have not met previously and which appear to owe its origin neither to official sanction nor custom, but to an enterprising manufacturer's idea of what our flag should be".

The issue of a flag for Southern Rhodesia was resolved once the territory became part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland and a new flag adopted on 7 September 1953.
Bruce Berry, 16 Feb 1998
Merchant ensign
Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) 1939 - 1953

A locally-formed committee consulted the deputy leader of the Mint, the Governor Sir Herbert Stanley, an heraldic artist at the Royal Navy base in Simonstown (near Cape Town) and the result was a design which was adopted in 1927.
The design signifies a fish eagle of the Zambezi and most other rivers of Northern Rhodesia and water rushing over the rock of the Victoria Falls. The heraldic description is: Sable six palets wavy Argent on a Chief Azure an eagle reguardant wings expanded Or holding in the talons a Fish of the second. The Government of the Colony accepted that this design be used as a shield on the Public Seal of the Territory in 1927. It received the approval of the King in 1930 and was formally granted to Northern Rhodesia by Royal Warrant on 16 August 1939. As far as I my memory serves me the Northern Rhodesia flag was a Fish Eagle (Nkwazi) with a fish in its claws depicted flying over the Victoria Falls. When independence came I believe it was decided to take away the fish as it was felt that it portrayed the grasp of colonialism on the masses. Steve Stephenson

The comment on the fish held in the claws of the fish eagle in the arms of Northern Rhodesia seems to me to be an inspired example of radical political hogwash. That's a reflection on the African nationalist politicians who produced the garbage, not on the vexillologist who quoted it! I recall hearing at the time that people were complaining about the "dead fish". What both comments betray is an abysmal ignorance regarding the symbolism involved. The African fish eagle is very similar to the American bald eagle - not only do they belong to the same genus, but they are almost identically colored. The only significant difference between them, and one which is easily portrayed in heraldic art, is the fish eagle's habit of catching fish. The allegedly dead fish is in fact freshly caught - so freshly caught that carefully observation of any video portraying this act of predation will reveal that the fish is wriggling as it is carried away. The net result of Zambia's removal of the fish when it converted the eagle in the chief (of the protectorate's arms) to a crest (in the arms of the republic) is that there is no longer any distinguishing mark to identify this bird as an African fish eagle, and it might as well be a symbol of the USA. So much for African independence! Mike Oettle

Red ensign from the Bruce Berry collection

Northern Rhodesia (1953 - 1963) Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland


The Flag of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was a modified British Blue Ensign. Centered in the fly of the flag was a depiction of the shield from the Federation's Coat of Arms. The rising sun is taken from the Arms of Nyasaland (now Malawi), the lion rampant is taken from the Arms of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), and the black and white wavy lines is taken from the Arms of Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). In this form, it accurately shows the Federation of all three British Colonies which lasted from 1953 to December 31, 1963. This flag flew alongside the Union Jack for the duration of the existence of the Federation.
Per fesse Azure and Sable in Chief a Sun rising Or and in base six Palets wavy Argent over all a fesse dovetailed counter-dovetailed of the last thereon a Lion passant Gules.
 
94cm x 44cm 
Northern Rhodesia joined with neighbouring Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland to form the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland in September 1953. The Federation flew a blue ensign with the shield from the Federal Arms in the fly. Elements from the shield of the arms of each of the constituent territories formed the Federal shield, with the palets wavy being from the Northern Rhodesia arms. The Federation was dissolved on 31 December 1963, with each of the constituent territories becoming separate political entities. Northern Rhodesia subsequently attained independence as the Republic of Zambia in October 1964. Bruce Berry
GovernorNorthern Rhodesia was administered by the British South Africa Company before becoming a British Protectorate in 1924. The flag of the Governor of Northern Rhodesia was a British Union Flag charged in the centre, on a white roundel, with the Arms granted to the Protectorate on 16 August 1939, namely "Sable, six palets wavy Argent, on a Chief Azure an Eagle reguardant wings expanded Or holding in its talons a Fish of the Second". In common with other flags used by British Colonial Governors, the Arms were within a green garland of laurel. This flag continued to be used by the Governor of Northern Rhodesia when the Protectorate became one of the constituent territories of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland between 1953 and 1963, and ceased to be used once Northern Rhodesia gained independence on 24 October 1964 as the Republic of Zambia. Bruce Berry


Southern Rhodesia (1923- 1953)
 With white disc, from the Bruce Berry collection
 
 When the organiser of the British Empire exhibition wrote to the Rhodesian High Commission in London in May 1925, on the question of the flag for the colony, this caused some consternation. The High Commission did not know what flag to use; on the advice of the Colonial Office, it recommended that the Blue Ensign with arms (or flag badge) in the fly be used, adding that the Governor had indicated that the government had approved the shield only as the flag badge. In March 1928 the Rhodesian High Commission wrote to the Colonial Office in Salisbury asking what the flag of the colony was, adding that they used the "Blue and Red ensigns with the Arms of the Colony in a circle" at the HC in London and at some exhibitions. The reply a month later stated that the Union Jack was the flag of Southern Rhodesia and that the use of the flag badge on the Union Jack or of both the Red and Blue Ensigns "would not be in order for the purpose mentioned in your letter". Between 1933 and 1934 correspondence between London and Salisbury described the colony's flag as being the Union Jack with the colony's badge in the centre of the fly, while another letter noted that no official authority had been given for the use of such a flag, normally reserved for use at sea. In brief, there was no official flag for Southern Rhodesian during this period.

The impending coronation of King George VI in 1937 brought matters to a head as the Rhodesian prime minister wanted a flag to represent the colony at the coronation. Through correspondence with the High Commission and the Dominions Office, it emerged that the most appropriate flag would be a Blue Ensign with the badge of Southern Rhodesia emblazoned in the fly, although the High Commissioner was of the opinion that the Union Jack remained the official flag of the colony and that the new flag had been adopted only for use outside the colony only. Thus the flag for Southern Rhodesia was finally established as being a Blue Ensign with the colonial shield in the fly. The Union Jack nevertheless continued to be flown INSIDE the colony, alongside subsequent Rhodesian flags, until 11 November 1968.

Not only the basic form of the colonial flag, but its exact details were confused in the era of its use. The Admiralty amended the 1915 edition of its Flags of All Nations by issuing, as part of Errata 8, a coloured sheet dated May 1926 which showed the flag badge as having the full achievement of the Southern Rhodesia arms. In April 1927 a correction was made, clearly establishing that the shield only was the appropriate flag badge. In both sheets the text indicated that this emblem appeared on a white disc when on the Union Jack, but WITHOUT a disk on the Blue Ensign. Nevertheless a Rhodesian Government publication illustrated the ensign with a disc behind the shield.

Various sources refer to a Southern Rhodesian Red Ensign bearing the shield (without disc), although Southern Rhodesia's lack of a coastline suggests that such a flag would have been unnecessary even if - as appears not to have been the case - it had official sanction. Red Ensigns were displayed during the 1947 Royal Visit and the local Salisbury newspaper commented, "This is a variety which we have not met previously and which appear to owe its origin neither to official sanction nor custom, but to an enterprising manufacturer's idea of what our flag should be".

The issue of a flag for Southern Rhodesia was resolved once the territory became part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland and a new flag adopted on 7 September 1953.

So in short - dark blue Southern Rhodesia Ensigns are known to have had the colony's shield both on a white disc and without the disc as illustrated above. Official proportions would have followed the British pattern of 1:2. Bruce Berry
Southern Rhodesia (1964 - 1968, 1979-1980)
In April 1964 Rhodesia adopted a light air force ensign with the shield from the coat of arms of Rhodesia in the fly. This was the first time the lighter shade of blue ensign was used by a British colony, although Fiji and Tuvalu both adopted the colour after independence.
After the breakup of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (when Southern Rhodesia joined the British protectorates of Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland between 1953 - 1963) Northern Rhodesia became the independent republic of Zambia and Nyasaland became Malawi under African leadership during 1964. Rhodesia (having dropped the "Southern") wanted independence on the same lines but the British Government refused on the basis that not enough was being done regarding the political advancement of the African population.After the demise of the Federation, the question of a distinctive flag for (Southern) Rhodesia again arose and in April 1964 the then Prime Minister, Mr Winston Field, stated in parliament that the new flag of the colony would be "an Ensign with a sky blue background (the same colour as appears on the Air Force flag) with the Union Jack in the top left-hand corner and the Southern Rhodesia badge in the fly". The main motivation for adopting the light blue background, as opposed to the traditional dark blue, was that it was felt that a clear break had to be made from the situation before and during the Federal period, which most white Rhodesians felt very emotional about, particularly their perceived poor treatment by the British government during the dissolution of the Federation. Unlike previous Southern Rhodesia dark blue and red ensigns used between 1923 and 1953, this version always had the shield placed directly in the fly without a disc. Bruce Berry
Described as an "original Rhodesian British South African Police Flag" 71" X 34". The tag reads: ???? Smith (Rhod) Limited "The House Of Tradition In Canvas" PO Box 2363 Salisbury.

From personal collection:Measuring 1 metre by 2. William Smith seemed to have had a tough time with the Union flags as they tend to have overlarge St. Patrick cross and fimbriation of the St. George's cross...
Hanging in my school hallway with Chinese Communist flag from other school in background
Prime Minister Ian Smith speaking in Salisbury in favour of Rhodesian independence from Great Britain November 10, 1964.



Merchant ensign

Governor General
 
From the Bruce Berry collection

Royal Rhodesian Air Force


Nyasaland (Malawi)
On 11 May 1914 a formal grant of arms to Nyasaland was made. This comprised a leopard with a rising sun reflected against a black background. Coffee, having not lived up to its expectations as the major crop in the colony, was thus dropped as the main symbol of the territory.

Following this grant of Arms, a new flag bearing the leopard and sun was adopted as the flag of the territory. The Nyasaland Blue Ensign contained the arms in the fly (without roundel) and was used until 23 October 1953 when the territory was incorporated into the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland and the Federation flag was adopted.  Bruce Berry


Nyasaland Governor's flag
The flag to be used by the Governor of the Protectorate of Nyasaland was a British Union Flag charged in the centre, on a white roundel, with the Arms granted to the Protectorate on 11 May 1914, namely: "Argent, on a Rock issuant from the base a Leopard statant proper, on a Chief wavy sable the Rising Sun Or". In common with other flags used by British Colonial Governors, the Arms were within a green garland of laurel. This flag continued to be used by the Governor of Nyasaland when Nyasaland became on of the constituent territories of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland between 1953 and 1963 and ceased to be used once Nyasaland gained independence on 06 July 1964 as the self-governing state of Malaŵi. Bruce Berry
Rhodesian Light Infantry, Queen's Colour
Queen's Colour presented by the Governor of Rhodesia Sir Humphrey Gibbs 19 July 1965.
St. Helena
video
Flag of 1939-1984

 
Typically sloppily-constructed flag with shield sewn on backwards; personal collection
 Vintage 1920s flag measuring 177cm by 93cm
 From the Clay Moss collection
Current flag adopted 4 October 1984

From Graham Bartram's British Flags & Emblems, page 13

Governor's Flag